Optimal instrument configuration for the "Food Testing Laboratory"
Release date: 2016-12-20
Enterprise laboratories can be set according to the types of products produced, the number of testing items and the size of the production scale, and the configuration of laboratory equipment can be complicated and simple. For such a laboratory, the configuration of instruments and equipment can meet the product quality inspection of the enterprise.
可分为两大项，一是检测产品的 品质项目 ；二是检测产品的 卫生项目 ，这一类项目的检测相对难度大、投资高。 Food inspection can be divided into two major items, one is the quality item of the detection product; the other is the sanitation item of the detection product. The detection of this type of item is relatively difficult and the investment is high.
包括：水分、含盐量、含糖量、蛋白含量、脂肪含量、纤维含量、维生素含量、酸度等。 (1) Quality items include: moisture, salt content, sugar content, protein content, fat content, fiber content, vitamin content, acidity, etc. For the detection of these items, if the funding is limited, they can be analyzed by chemical methods, and only the simplest oven, water bath, electric furnace, stirrer, pulverizer, pH meter and other equipment can be configured. If the funds are sufficient or there are many inspection batches, the corresponding testing items have corresponding special instruments available for purchase. In addition, there are also some general-purpose instruments available for purchase, such as: UV / visible spectrophotometer, near-infrared analyzer, automatic titrator, and so on. Fluorescence photometer is sometimes required to detect vitamin A, E, etc. To detect nutrient elements, such as calcium, zinc, iron, etc., atomic absorption instrument-flame detector can be purchased.
包括：微生物、添加剂、有害元素、农药残留、兽药残留、毒素等。 (2) Health items include: microorganisms, additives, harmful elements, pesticide residues, veterinary drug residues, toxins, etc. For general food companies, a microbiological testing laboratory should be established.
The establishment of a microbiology laboratory shall be arranged in accordance with the requirements of the biological laboratory standard. The necessary equipment includes clean benches, incubators, autoclaves, electric stoves, etc. Other equipment is configured according to specific testing items. You can buy domestically produced ones with less funds, and you can consider importing with more funds. The price of the two is much different.
b) Additives and harmful elements
Some projects can use chemical methods, such as nitrite, sulfur dioxide, heavy metal content, total arsenic, etc. But in order to meet the current national food hygiene requirements, gas chromatography-hydrogen flame detectors, liquid chromatography-ultraviolet / visible light detectors should be purchased. Such general preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid, etc.), sweeteners (sweetness) Pigment, sodium saccharin, etc.), pigments (lime yellow, carmine, etc.) can be detected. Atomic absorption instrument-graphite furnace detector is purchased, which can detect harmful elements such as lead, chromium, cadmium, copper, nickel, etc., and an atomic fluorescence meter is needed to detect arsenic and mercury.
c) Residual pesticides
Gas chromatography for the detection of residual pesticides is essential. To detect organochlorine pesticides, an electronic capture ECD detector is required; to detect organophosphorus pesticides, a flame photometric FPD detector or a nitrogen-phosphorus NPD detector is required. Currently, there are more and more pesticide residue testing items. In order to improve the versatility, it is recommended to configure a capillary column split / splitless inlet and install a capillary column. Compared with traditional packed column chromatography columns, capillary columns have more analysis items and good resolution, which can reduce frequent column replacements and improve analysis efficiency. More and more pesticide residue items need to be tested when exporting products produced by export food processing enterprises. In order to control the quality of raw materials and products, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry can be configured. Generally only need to configure the electron bombardment EI source, if necessary, can be equipped with a negative chemical NCI source. Whether you choose quadrupole mass spectrometry or ion trap mass spectrometry, I personally think that both can be used. Both instruments have advantages and disadvantages. It depends on the specific job.
d) Residual veterinary drugs
If the detection of residual veterinary drugs has few items and many batches, it may be considered to configure an enzyme-linked immunoassay instrument. The instrument has a small investment at one time, is easy to operate, and has high detection sensitivity. There are also some disadvantages to using ELISA. One is that the kit is a long-term consumable. The cost will be higher if the number of batches tested is small. The second is that the specificity is not good and there may be false positives. The third is if it is in a relatively long period of time. There are many testing items, and the cost is even higher than the instrumental analysis. For exporting food companies with a certain scale, in order to meet the current testing limit requirements of developed countries such as the European Union, the United States, and Japan, it is best to configure a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer. The first instrument is recommended to be equipped with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, which has high sensitivity and good reproducibility. The instrument does not have to pursue high configuration, it is enough to be sufficient, but the performance such as sensitivity, stability, anti-pollution is better. It is best to buy a model with a large number of users. There is a user group that is similar to its own test items. First of all, it indicates that there is no problem in the test items of this type of instrument. Second, it also facilitates future technical exchanges.
Compared with commercial laboratories and commercial laboratories, commercial laboratories have more commodities and items to test, so the configuration of instruments and equipment should be more complete than corporate laboratories. The configuration of the instruments and equipment can not only meet the current testing needs, but also be appropriately ahead of time, otherwise it will be difficult for the customer to come home and be pushed away by you, and then find the customer back.
通常要考虑使用的标准或根据客户要求，配置相应的检测仪器和设备（参照1. 企业实验室品质项目一段）。 1) Testing quality items usually need to consider the standards used or configure corresponding testing instruments and equipment according to customer requirements (refer to the section 1. Enterprise laboratory quality items). Since different products and different customers may propose different detection standards or methods for the same item, if the method requires chemical analysis for the detection of these items, only the simplest equipment needs to be configured (refer to 1. Enterprise laboratory quality Project paragraph). If the funding is sufficient or there are a lot of inspection batches, and the corresponding detection method has an instrument method, corresponding special instruments can be configured, such as: moisture analyzer, Kjeldahl nitrogen analyzer, fast fat analyzer, sugar content meter, viscometer, Fatty acid analyzer, etc. General instruments can also refer to the section of the enterprise laboratory quality project. If required, a dedicated analyzer such as an amino acid analyzer can also be configured.
的实验室配置参见“1. 企业实验室”相关段落。 2) For the configuration of the laboratory for sanitation testing , please refer to the relevant paragraph in "1. Enterprise laboratory". Personally, I think liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry are indispensable for a modern commercial laboratory. This is a condition required by the directives and standards when a positive report is issued for banned agricultural and veterinary drug residues. If there are scale and testing items, each type of instrument should be equipped with multiple sets. At this time, the complementarity of instrument performance should be considered, such as: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, one power distribution spray ionization source, one equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, one equipped with electron bombardment source, and one equipped with negative chemical ionization. source. There are many elements and samples are miscellaneous. Plasma emission spectrometry-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry can also be considered. If morphological analysis is to be performed, the plasma emission spectrometer-mass spectrometer should also be able to be used with liquid chromatography or gas chromatography.
China's industry laboratories (referred to as government regulations laboratories) are all affiliated with administrative leaders in different industries, so they all have a little administrative effect. In recent years, the government attaches great importance to food safety and has increased its investment. Therefore, the laboratory hardware has been greatly improved. At present, a relatively complete industrial laboratory (above the provincial and municipal level), in addition to the category and quantity of analysis and testing equipment, should be equal to or better than that of general commercial laboratories. In order to improve the analysis efficiency, the pretreatment equipment configuration can be improved Some, such as: microwave digestion (including microwave extraction), automatic solid-phase extraction instrument, gel chromatography purification instrument, solvent accelerated extraction instrument, high-speed refrigerated centrifuge, high-speed homogenizer, nitrogen blowing instrument, etc. These pre-processing equipment are more efficient, more automated (the samples can be processed automatically at night time), and will improve the reproducibility of results.
As China's administrative supervision system is in line with the developed countries in the world, our industry laboratories are more and more participating in competence comparison activities of some authoritative institutions in the world. The testing methods and results are implemented in accordance with internationally accepted practices. In addition, in order to adapt to the development of food safety testing, many laboratories have begun to develop new analytical methods. Therefore, industry laboratories will configure higher-end analytical instruments, such as high-resolution mass spectrometers, to make the final test results more accurate.
Food Enterprise Lab
Moisture, salt content, sugar content, protein content, fat content, fiber content, vitamin content, acidity, etc.
For chemical analysis, you only need to configure the simplest oven, water bath, electric furnace, stirrer, grinder, pH meter and other equipment
General-purpose instruments such as: UV / visible spectrophotometer, near-infrared analyzer, automatic titrator, etc.
Configure special instruments according to corresponding testing items
Vitamin A, E, etc.
Nutrient elements, such as calcium, zinc, iron, etc.
Atomic absorption instrument-flame detector
Microbiology laboratory, must be built
Layout according to biological laboratory specifications. The necessary equipment includes clean benches, incubators, autoclaves, electric stoves, etc. Other equipment is configured according to specific testing items. Simple configuration for domestic
High configuration for import
Additives and harmful elements
Nitrite, sulfur dioxide, heavy metal content, total arsenic, etc.
International health standards: preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid, etc.), sweeteners (cyclamate, sodium saccharin, etc.), pigments (lemon yellow, carmine etc.)
Gas chromatography-hydrogen flame detector, liquid chromatography-ultraviolet / visible light detector
Lead, chromium, cadmium, copper, nickel and other harmful elements
Atomic absorption instrument-graphite furnace detector
Arsenic and mercury
Gas chromatography, required
Gas chromatography, capillary column split / splitless inlet, installation of a capillary column
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (quadrupole, ion trap can be used), EI is sufficient, optional NCI
Electron capture detector ECD
Flame photometric detector FPD or nitrogen and phosphorus detector NPD
Residual veterinary drugs
Not many items and lots
Enzyme-linked immunoassay ELISA, Note: When the project is particularly many, the cost is higher than using the instrument
There are certain scale export food companies
Triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer
Commercial Third Party Lab
According to the standards used or customer requirements, the corresponding testing instruments and equipment can be configured, which can refer to the quality items of the food company's laboratory. Chemical methods or instrument methods can be used, as follows:
Configure special instruments according to the corresponding test items:
Moisture meter, Kjeldahl meter, fast fat meter, sugar meter, viscometer, fatty acid analyzer, etc.
Amino acid analyzer and other special equipment
All can refer to the laboratory hygiene program of food companies, the others are as follows:
Agricultural / Veterinary Drug Residues: Essential for modern commercial laboratories, conditions required by directives and standards for positive reports on banned agricultural and veterinary drug residues
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
There are many scales and testing items. Each type of instrument should also be equipped with multiple sets to make the instruments complementary.
Many elements, mixed samples
ICP-MS, GC-MS / MS
ICP-MS with LC or GC
Government Regulation Laboratory
Based on the comprehensive configuration, pre-processing equipment can be added, which has higher efficiency and higher degree of automation, and improves the reproducibility of results.
Microwave digestion (including microwave extraction), automatic solid-phase extraction instrument, gel chromatography purification instrument, solvent accelerated extraction instrument, high-speed refrigerated centrifuge, high-speed homogenizer, nitrogen blowing instrument, etc.
Need international comparison
High resolution mass spectrometer